Witness the birth of a nation as our forefathers struggle to craft the Declaration of Independence.
Show Essentials
+ Ensemble

Full Synopsis

It is May 8, 1776. In Philadelphia, the weather is swelteringly hot and humid as the Second Continental Congress proceeds through its business. John Adams, the representative from Massachusetts, vigorously complains about congressional inaction on his proposals for Independence. He lists various grievances against King George III and urges a vote. The other delegates are irritated by his constant arguments ("For God's Sake, John, Sit Down"). Adams complains that Congress has accomplished nothing, even though the delegates have been meeting for over a year ("Piddle, Twiddle").

Frustrated by the seemingly insurmountable Congressional lassitude, Adams flees the chamber and reads a letter from his wife, Abigail. She asks him to finish his business in Philadelphia and return home to her and their sick children. As if his imagination has brought her before him, John asks Abigail if she has organized the women of Boston to make saltpetre. a substance that is needed for making gunpowder. She reminds him that he hasn't told her how to make saltpetre and, furthermore, the women won't make it until he procures dressmaker's pins for them. They end their conversation by pledging themselves to each other as Abigail disappears ("Til Then").

Adams goes off to find Benjamin Franklin; he is having his portrait painted. After Adams complains that his arguments for Independence have not prevailed, Franklin reminds him that no colony has ever broken away from its parent country before. He also reminds Adams that he is obnoxious and disliked by the Congress, suggesting that the Congress might accept Independence if someone else proposed it. Enter Richard Henry Lee, a delegate from Virginia. Lee offers to get a proposal from the Virginia legislature himself. When Adams questions Lee's ability to accomplish this, Lee explains that his family history makes him the perfect person for the job ("The Lees of Old Virginia").

On June 7, 1776, Dr. Lyman Hall, a new delegate from Georgia, arrives in the Congressional Chamber and is greeted by McNair, the Congressional custodian. McNair introduces him to the entering delegates, each of whom asks about Georgia's stand on Independence. Hall is for it, but his constituents are not; he is unsure whether his job is to vote their opinion or his conscience. Franklin and Adams enter; Adams is anxiously awaiting Lee's return. Hancock gavels the 380th meeting of the Congress to order. When Thomson notes that all members are present, except for the New Jersey delegation and Lee, Hancock asks Franklin if he knows the reason for their absence. Franklin, whose son is the royal governor of New Jersey, informs the Congress that he and his son have stopped communicating due to their differences over Independence. Hancock then asks Thomas Jefferson for the weather report. Jefferson gives it and announces his intention to go home to see his wife that night.

A courier enters and gives Thomson a communiqué from George Washington, the commander of the Army of the United Colonies. Washington's letter speaks of his fear that his exhausted and underequipped troops will be unable to stop a large force of British soldiers from attacking New York. If the attack is successful and New York is captured, New England will be separated from the other colonies. Colonel Thomas McKean, a delegate from Delaware, complains that Washington's letters are always gloomy and depressing.

Suddenly, Lee returns. He reads the resolution for Independence, and Adams seconds it. As Hancock calls for debate on the resolution, John Dickinson of Pennsylvania makes a motion to indefinitely postpone the question of Independence. The motion is seconded, but the Congress ultimately votes to debate the issue. The most vocal delegates state their positions: Dickinson is in favor of petitioning King George III on the colonists' grievances and he is against cutting ties to England through revolt and revolution. Adams and Franklin argue that England has not granted the colonists the full rights of Englishmen and it is too late to reconcile. The delegates from North and South Carolina worry about the power of the individual colonies in any new federation.

 As the argument between Dickinson and Adams grows more heated, Caesar Rodney of Delaware, who suffers from cancer, collapses. Col. McKean takes him back home. Seeing that the voting majority will go his way, Edward Rutledge of South Carolina moves to vote on Independence. The New Jersey delegation arrives, led by Rev. John Witherspoon, who announces that they have been authorized to vote for Independence. Now it looks like the vote will be six for Independence and six against, with one abstention. Hancock, the President of the Congress, will have the deciding vote in a tie. Dickinson, worried that the resolution might pass, moves that any vote for Independence must be passed unanimously. His motion is seconded; the vote produces a tie, which Hancock breaks by voting for a unanimous decision.

The vote for Independence is called again. Adams now calls for a postponement; they need time to write a declaration defining the reasons for Independence. This motion is seconded, and the vote produces another tie, which Hancock breaks by voting for postponement. He chooses Adams, Franklin, Lee, Roger Sherman of Connecticut and Robert Livingston of New York to write the declaration, announcing that it must be written, debated and passed by the beginning of July. Lee declines, so Hancock appoints Jefferson in his place. Hancock adjourns the session as Jefferson complains that he must go home to visit his wife. The Declaration Committee argues about who should write it, and they choose Jefferson ("But, Mr. Adams"). Jefferson tries to decline so that the can go home, but Adams threatens to use physical force on him and thrusts a quill pen into Jefferson's hand. Adams and the others leave as Jefferson walks back to his quarters with the pen.

When Adams and Franklin visit Jefferson a week later to check on his progress, they find him surrounded by crumpled pieces of paper. He is lonely, depressed, uninspired and has made no progress. Jefferson's wife, Martha, arrives. John has sent for her in hopes of speeding up Jefferson's writing but, upon her arrival, Jefferson doesn't seem much interested.

The Jeffersons stay locked in their room all day and into the night. Adams exchanges letters with his wife, Abigail. When he asks her to come to Philadelphia, she tells him that she can't, as their children have the measles. They speak of their love and promise to see each other soon ("Yours, Yours, Yours"). When Martha finally opens the shutters, Adams and Franklin ask her how a man as quiet as Jefferson won her love. She says that she loves his violin playing ("He Plays the Violin"). Jefferson enters as Martha, Adams and Franklin are dancing. Jefferson takes Martha back to his room as Franklin and Adams salute the greatness of the fiddler.

It is now June 22nd and the Congress is back in session. Delegates read, talk, eat and sleep in the chamber as various committees are formed. The courier enters with a message from General Washington. He reports on the poor state of his troops and asks the Congress to send a War Committee to New Jersey to boost morale. As the War Committee leaves for New Jersey, the other delegates in favor of Independence also leave. Dickinson and the Conservatives explain their caution and their desire to hold onto their wealth ("Cool, Cool Considerate Men"). The courier then delivers another message from Washington: the British have taken control of New York Harbor and he fears that they will next move on to Philadelphia. The delegates all depart, leaving McNair, the Courier and a workman in the chamber. When the workman asks the Courier, who is from Massachusetts, if he's seen any fighting, the Courier tells them about his two best friends who were killed on the same day ("Momma, Look Sharp").

Jefferson is waiting outside of the chamber as Hancock orders Thomson to read the declaration. Adams and Franklin approach Jefferson and congratulate him on the excellence of the document. Franklin compares the creation of the new country to an egg, which leads the trio to discuss which bird should be the symbol for America ("The Egg"). After considering the dove or the turkey, they settle on the eagle.

After the reading of Jefferson's declaration, Hancock asks if any delegates want to offer amendments, deletions or alterations to it. There are several suggestions to which Jefferson agrees but, when Dickinson wants him to remove a reference to King George III as a tyrant, Jefferson refuses. As Hancock is about to call for a vote on the Declaration, Rutledge of South Carolina objects to the inclusion of slavery and the slave trade as a grievance. Jefferson says that he has freed his slaves and will not change that part of the declaration. Rutledge also refuses to budge and calls the Northerners who denounce slavery hypocrites as the entire country's economy is dependent on the slave trade ("Molasses to Rum"). Rutledge and Hewes of North Carolina and Hall of Georgia angrily leave the chamber. Without the South, the Declaration cannot be adopted.

Chase returns and happily reports that, based on what he saw in New Brunswick, the Maryland Assembly has approved the Virginia resolution. Dickinson and four other delegates leave in disgust. Faced with almost certain defeat, Adams desperately tries to rally his forces. He sends McKean to Delaware to bring back the ailing Rodney. Franklin then insists that Adams agree to the removal of the slavery clause in order to get the South. Adams calls to his wife for help and advice. As they speak, McNair delivers two kegs of saltpetre that were made by Abigail and the women of Boston ("Compliments"). Adams, his faith in the cause renewed, tells Jefferson and Franklin to talk to all of the wavering delegates – they must get every vote. Thomson reads a message from a discouraged Washington that asks for a reply to his last fifteen messages. He and Hancock leave Adams alone in the chamber. Adams looks at the dispatch from Washington that warns of impending doom and disaster. Deterred but determined, Adams gives voice to his vision of the new country ("Is Anybody There?").

Hall reenters the chamber and tells Adams that he has decided to vote for Independence. The other delegates, including Caesar Rodney, return, and Hancock calls for the vote on the Virginia resolution. The delegates are silent as Thomson calls on each for his vote. New York abstains and Pennsylvania passes. Franklin is furiously trying to convince Judge Wilson, the third Pennsylvania delegate, to swing to his side. All of the other northern and middle colonies vote "Yea." When South Carolina is called, Rutledge demands the removal of the slavery clause as the condition for the votes of South and North Carolina. With heavy hearts, Adams and Jefferson agree. South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia vote "Yea." When Pennsylvania's vote is called again, Franklin asks Hancock to poll each of them. Franklin votes "Yea" and Dickinson votes "Nay," leaving the deciding vote to Wilson, who usually votes whichever way Dickinson does. This time, however, worried that his name will go down in history as the one man who prevented American Independence, he votes "Yea." Hancock asks that only those who sign their names to the Declaration of Independence be allowed to sit in the Congress. Dickinson, still hoping for a reconciliation with England, announces that he cannot, in good conscience, sign the Declaration, but tells the Congress that he will join the Army and fight to protect the new country. Adams leads the Congress in a salute to Dickinson as he leaves the chamber.

As Hancock leads the delegates in signing the Declaration, the Courier enters with another dispatch from Washington. It reports that preparations are almost complete for the battle of New York, simultaneously expressing worry about America's badly outnumbered and undertrained troops. 

On the evening of July 4, 1776, the Liberty Bell rings in the background as Thomson calls each of the delegates to sign their names to the Declaration of Independence.

← Back to 1776
Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers)
Cast Type: Ensemble Cast
Dance Requirements: None

Character Breakdown

John Adams
Delegate from Massachusetts. John is a dutiful husband. Opinionated, passionate, and a bit boisterous, he wears his age with pride. Starving for independence from England.
Gender: male
Age: 41 to 41
Vocal range top: F#4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Stephen Hopkins
Delegate from Rhode Island. Hopkins' drinking has led to an appearance befitting of the 2nd oldest in the Continental Congress. He has a dirty old man playfulness about him.
Gender: male
Age: 70 to 70
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Roger Sherman
Delegate from Connecticut. A coffee drinker with a penchant for hyperactivity, Sherman is a simple and balding cobbler.
Gender: male
Age: 55 to 55
Vocal range top: Bb4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Robert Livingston
Delegate from New York. Recently a father, Livingston's disposition has become one of humility and graciousness. He has changed considerably over the years.
Gender: male
Age: 30 to 30
Vocal range top: F4
Vocal range bottom: Bb2
Benjamin Franklin
Delegate from Pennsylvania. Franklin is intelligent, well-traveled, and pleasantly cunning. A jolly and admirable fellow with whom one would desire to have a friendship.
Gender: male
Age: 60 to 70
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: Ab2
John Dickinson
Delegate from Pennsylvania. A thin, hawkish gentleman. He is sharp-tongued and a touch detestable.
Gender: male
Age: 44 to 44
Vocal range top: E4
Vocal range bottom: A2
Col. Thomas Mckean
Delegate from Delaware. McKean is florid and likable with a charming, yet commanding, Scottish Brogue.
Gender: male
Age: 42 to 42
Vocal range top: Eb4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Richard Henry Lee
Delegate from Virginia, Lee is a willowy aristocrat. His flamboyancy is intoxicating and borderline infuriating.
Gender: male
Age: 45 to 45
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Thomas Jefferson
Delegate from Virginia. Though noticeably tall, Jefferson is mild-mannered and sweet. Along with being a well read man, he is very much in love with his wife.
Gender: male
Age: 33 to 33
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Edward Rutledge
Delegate from South Carolina. Despite his good looks, Rutledge is haunting and somewhat ominous as the youngest member of the Continental Congress. There is a serpent-like quality to him.
Gender: male
Age: 26 to 26
Vocal range top: A4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Abigail Adams
Loving wife to John Adams. Intelligent, quick-witted, and talented with a pen, Abigail is a radiant and shapely beauty. Every bit as bright as her husband.
Gender: female
Age: 32 to 32
Vocal range top: F5
Vocal range bottom: Db4
Martha Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson's very-much-in-love wife. Her looks are striking, her dancing delightful, and her humor appealing. She doesn't shy away from a good time. Joy radiates from her.
Gender: female
Age: 27 to 27
Vocal range top: D5
Vocal range bottom: Bb3
The message runner between General Washington's army and the Continental Congress. He has witnessed the hardships of war firsthand, although his innocent disposition and appearance may imply otherwise.
Gender: male
Age: 15 to 20
Vocal range top: Db4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Full Song List
1776: Overture
1776: For God's Sake, John Sit Down!
1776: Piddle, Twiddle And Resolve
1776: Till Then
1776: The Lees Of Old Virginia
1776: But, Mr. Adams
1776: Yours, Yours, Yours
1776: He Plays The Violin
1776: Cool, Cool Considerate Men
1776: Momma Look Sharp
1776: The Egg
1776: Molasses To Rum
1776: Is Anybody There?

Show History


After writing a number of popular songs, composer/lyricist, Sherman Edwards, began seven years of research on the American Revolution in the Morristown, New Jersey, Public Library in the late 1950s. He took another two years to write the songs and libretto for a musical about the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

When Peter Stone came on board to write the book, he concentrated on the arguments and intrigue that occurred during the Second Continental Congress. He took some historical liberties: the actual Declaration of Independence was signed by 56 people over a period of several months, not on July 4, 1776; Jefferson did return to Virginia to visit his wife; John Adams's cousin, Samuel Adams, was also a prominent delegate from Massachusetts. The changes were made to enhance the drama in a story for which the audience already knew the outcome. The finished show was an unconventional Broadway musical in many respects: there was no chorus of dancing women (there were only two women in the entire show), there was no intermission and some scenes (of which, there were only seven) had no music.


1776 opened on Broadway on March 16, 1969, at the 46th Street Theater. The cast included David Ford as John Hancock, William Daniels as John Adams, Ken Howard as Thomas Jefferson, Howard Da Silva as Benjamin Franklin, Paul Hecht as John Dickinson, Ronald Holgate as Richard Henry Lee, Betty Buckley as Martha Jefferson and Virginia Vestoff as Abigail Adams. The sets and lighting were by Broadway veteran, Jo Mielziner, and the costumes were by Patricia Zipprodt. The show ran for a total of 1,217 performances.

A very successful national touring production opened in San Francisco in 1970 and ran for over two years.

The London production of 1776 opened on June 16, 1970, at the New Theatre. The production starred Lewis Fiander as Adams, Vivienne Ross as Abigail Adams, Ronald Radd, Bernard Lloyd, David Kernan as Rutledge, John Quentin as Jefferson and Cheryl Kennedy as Martha Jefferson.

1776 was revived on Broadway by the Roundabout Theatre Company, opening on August 4, 1997, in a limited engagement at the Roundabout's home theatre, the Criterion Center, before transferring to the George Gershwin Theatre on December 3, 1997, for a commercial run. It closed on June 14, 1998, after 333 performances and 34 previews. The production was directed by Scott Ellis with choreography by Kathleen Marshall, and featured Brent Spiner as Adams, Michael Cumpsty as Dickinson, Pat Hingle as Franklin and Paul Michael Valley as Jefferson.

Cultural Influence

  • In 1972, Jack Warner produced the film version of 1776 for Columbia Pictures. It is now available on videotape and laserdisc. Many of the people associated with the Broadway show were involved in the film version, including Peter Stone, Sherman Edwards, Peter Hunt, William Daniels, Howard Da Silva and Ken Howard.
  • There have been several cast recordings, including the original Broadway cast (1969), the original London cast (1970), the British Studio cast (1970), the original motion picture soundtrack (1972) and the Broadway revival cast (1997).


  • Scene Three of 1776 holds the record for the longest time in a Broadway musical without a single note of music played or sung – over thirty minutes pass between "The Lees of Old Virginia" and the next number, "But Mr. Adams."
  • A Director's Cut of the original film has been released on DVD. Both the look and sound of the original film have been improved through modern technology. Many cuts to the original film by the producer, Jack Warner, have been restored, including a musical numbers. Musical underscoring has been removed from several scenes without songs in order to strengthen the focus on dialogue. Bonus material includes commentary by director, Peter Hunt, and by Peter Stone, the book/screen writer. Among other topics, they discuss artistic liberties and anachronisms that were used to dramatize the events.
  • The original Broadway production of 1776 was nominated for five Tony Awards and five Drama Desk Awards. The 1997 Broadway revival was nominated for three Tony Awards and three Drama Desk Awards.
  • Sherman Edwards originally wrote a show about the Declaration of Independence on his own. That show was optioned by many producers, but Edwards always refused to let his libretto be rewritten by another writer. and that impeded its development. When producer, Stuart Ostrow, obtained the project, he approached Peter Stone to rewrite the book. Stone had been reluctant to return Ostrow's initial phone calls but he became enthusiastic after he heard the score. Ostrow convinced Sherman Edwards to allow Peter Stone write a new book for the show.
  • Composer/lyricist, Sherman Edwards, was a history teacher-turned-songwriter from Morristown, New Jersey. He spent ten years working on 1776.

  • Opening with a small advance sale, word-of-mouth and critical praise made 1776 the sleeper hit of of the late 1960s. It was a hit all over again when it was revived on Broadway in 1997.

  • John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on the fourth of July in 1826.

Critical Reaction

"On the face of it, few historical incidents seem more unlikely to spawn a Broadway musical than that solemn moment in the history of mankind, the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Yet, 1776, which opened last night at the 46th Street Theater, most handsomely demonstrated that people who merely go on the face of it are occasionally outrageously wrong. Come to think of it, that was also what the Declaration of Independence demonstrated, so there is a ready precedent at hand. 1776, which I saw at one of its critics' previews on Saturday afternoon, is a most striking, most gripping musical. I recommend it without reservation. It makes even an Englishman's heart beat a little bit faster. This is a musical with style, humanity, wit and passion. The credit for the idea of the musical belongs to Sherman Edwards, who has also contributed the music and lyrics. The book is by Peter Stone, best known as a Hollywood screenwriter. The two of them have done a fine job. The authors have really captured the Spirit of '76. The characterizations are most unusually full for a musical, and even though the outcome is never in any very serious doubt, 1776 is consistently exciting and entertaining, for Mr. Stone's book is literate, urbane and, on occasion, very amusing. The music is absolutely modern in its sound, and it is apt, convincing and enjoyable."
– Clive Barnes, The New York Times, March 17, 1969

"A magnificently staged and stunningly original musical was presented last evening at the 46th St. Theater. It is far, far off the Broadway path and far away in time. Its simple title is 1776 and its story concerns the writing of our Declaration of Independence. This is by no means a historical tract or a sermon on the birth of this nation. It is warm with life of its own; it is funny, it is moving. It plays without intermission, because an intermission would break its spell. It is an artistic creation such as we do not often find in our theater. Often, as I sat enchanted in my seat, it reminded me of Gilbert and Sullivan in its amused regard of human frailties; again, in its music, it struck me as a new opera. And the men who, after months of debate-some of it silly and petty-finally put their John Hancocks on our Document became miraculously human. The author of music and lyrics is Sherman Edwards, a onetime history professor who became a popular song writer. Edwards has worked on his conception for a decade, and now Peter Stone, known mostly as a scenarist, has made this idea into a libretto which works perfectly on a musical stage."
– John Chapman, Daily News, March 17, 1969

"The United States has become the well-spring of successful musical comedies of the English-speaking world in the past quarter century, but no one had written about that most American of events, the signing of the Declaration of Independence. This omission has now been corrected with the appearance at the Forty-Sixth Street Theater of 1776 (that's all there is to the title), presented by Stuart Ostrow with music and lyrics by Sherman Edwards and book by Peter Stone. We now really have our own thing in a musical, and it is pleasant to report that it is first-rate both as musical entertainment and as a semi-documentary. It is absorbing and exciting, and if history has been manipulated a bit here and there for dramatic purposes, the character of the men and the events of those remarkable months in Philadelphia come through admirably."
– Richard P. Cooke, The Wall Street Journal, March 18, 1969

"In this cynical age, it required courage as well as enterprise to do a musical play that simply deals with the events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. And 1776, which opened last night at the 46th St. Theater, makes no attempt to be satirical or wander off into modern by-paths. But the rewards of the confidence reposed in the bold conception were abundant. The result is a brilliant and remarkably moving work of theatrical art. 1776 has no plot in a conventional sense, and it makes no attempt to romanticize the Founding Fathers. It shows the delegates to the Continental Congress who met in Philadelphia that hot summer as a group of highly fallible, quarrelsome and sometimes pig-headed men, who dawdled away their days in bickerings and doubts, much to the indignation of John Adams, who wanted to get ahead with the business in hand. Yet they did somehow arise to the greatness of the momentous occasion. The attractive song numbers by Sherman Edwards are imaginatively brought in, Peter Stone's book is always skillful, and it handles the lighter moments, such as the brief romantic interludes for Jefferson and Adams, with sense and deftness. 1776 is a most exhilarating accomplishment."
– Richard Watts, New York Post, March 17, 1969

NY Drama Critics Circle Award

1969 - Best Musical, Winner (1776)

Tony® Award

1969 - Supporting Actress In A Musical Play, Nominee (Virginia Vestoff)
1969 - Best Performance By A Featured Actor In A Musical, Winner (Ronald Holgate)
1969 - Best Performance By A Featured Actress In A Musical, Nominee (Virginia Vestoff)
1969 - Director Of A Musical Play, Winner (Peter Hunt)
1969 - Best Direction Of A Musical, Winner (Peter Hunt)
1969 - Musical Play, Winner (Peter Stone (book), Sherman Edwards (music and lyrics), Stuart Ostrow (producer))
1969 - Best Scenic Design, Nominee (Jo Mielziner)
1969 - Scenic Design, Nominee (Jo Mielziner)
1969 - Supporting Actor In A Musical Play, Winner (Ronald Holgate)
1969 - Supporting Actor In A Musical Play, Nominee (William Daniels (His name was removed from the ballot prior to voting at his request))
1998 - Best Direction Of A Musical, Nominee (Scott Ellis)
1998 - Actor In A Featured Role (Musical), Nominee (Gregg Edelman)
1998 - Director (Musical), Nominee (Scott Ellis)
1998 - Revival (Musical), Nominee (Roundabout Theatre Company, Todd Haimes, Ellen Richard, James M. Nederlander, Stewart F. Lane, Rodger Hess, Bill Haber, Robert Halmi, Jr., Dodger Endemol Theatricals, Hallmark Entertainment(producers))
1998 - Best Revival Of A Musical, Nominee (1776)
1998 - Best Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Gregg Edelman)

Theater World Award

1969 - Theater World Award, Winner (Ken Howard)

Drama Desk Award

1969 - Outstanding Book of a Musical, Winner (Peter Stone)
1969 - Outstanding Costume Design, Winner (Patricia Zipprodt)
1998 - Best Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Gregg Edelman)
1998 - Outstanding Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Brent Spiner)
1998 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Gregg Edelman)
1998 - Outstanding Revival of a Musical, Nominee ()

Outer Critics Circle Award

1969 - Best Composer / Lyricist, Winner (Sherman Edwards)



Based on a concept by Sherman Edwards


You must give the authors/creators billing credits, as specified in the Production Contract, in a conspicuous manner on the first page of credits in all programs and on houseboards, displays and in all other advertising announcements of any kind.
Percentages listed indicate required type size in relation to title size.
America's Prize Winning Musical 
Music and Lyrics by SHERMAN EDWARDS 
Based on a concept by SHERMAN EDWARDS
(17 1/2%)
Original Production Directed by PETER HUNT
(33 1/3%) 
Originally Produced on the Broadway Stage by STUART OSTROW

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